This is a powerful historical document that is verified with current day evidence that most people do not want to admit exists because of what this means.
The truth about the Israelite Exodus and more. Enjoy!!!!! See the Land Bridge. Artifacts of chariots.
Egyptologist's Pharaoh died in a whirlpool fighting a god.
"New historical light on the ancient Egyptian dynasties leads to a massive reconstruction of Egyptian history."
Who Was the Real Pharaoh of the Exodus?
by William F. Dankenbring
Egyptian history has been totally confused by Egyptologists, and as a result the true account of the Exodus of Israel under Moses has been denied, misunderstood, and rejected by world historians and scholars.
But new historical light on the ancient Egyptian dynasties leads to a massive reconstruction of Egyptian history, which fits perfectly with the Biblical account of the Exodus. Read, here, of the Egyptian eye- witness to the divine plagues which struck Egypt, the collapse of the greatest Dynasty of Egypt up to that time, and the amazing proven identity of the Pharaoh of that epochal upheaval in Egypt whose life was cut short as he perished in the maelstrom of the Red Sea.
The Pharaoh of the Exodus Period
The last Pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty was Amenemhet IV. He reigned only nine years, the
shortest reign of all Pharaohs of the Tweflth Dynasty. Declares Ted Stewart of this Pharaoh:
“He suddenly and mysteriously disappeared from the pages of history. Neither his
pyramid nor his tomb have ever been found. Neither his firstborn son, nor any other
of his sons, succeeded him to the throne. Instead, his wife/sister became ruler of
Egypt in his place.
“When Amenemhet IV’s wife died three and one half years later, the twelfth dynasty,
the most powerful and glorious Egyptian dynasty up to that time of history, mysteriously
fell. The rulership of Egypt was immediately divided into two dynasties, one of them
controlled by the Libyans” (ibid., p.240).
Amenemhet IV is this short-reigned Pharaoh who was cut off in the prime of life, and died
mysteriously after having reigned only nine years. How did he die?
The Awesome Death of Pharaoh
The black granitic monolithic shrine of el-Arish tells of events in a very early time, to King Thom
and his successor. The name of King Thom is written in a royal cartouche, pointing to the historical
character of the text.
The text speaks of the days of darkness which came over the land, and the great affliction which
fell over the earth. It speaks of the tempest that roared, so that no man could see the face of his neighbor.
During this savage time of affliction, and upheaval of nature, the text says that "his majesty of
Shou" assembled his forces and ordered them to follow him to regions where they would again see light.
We read, ". . . his majesty of Shou went to battle against the companions of Apopi." Apopi was the fierce god of darkness. The king and his army never returned.
Says the shrine:
Now when the majesty of Ra-Harmachis fought with the evil-doers in this pool, the Place of the Whirlpool, the evil-doers prevailed not over his majesty. His majesty leaped into the so-called Place of the Whirlpool.
Where was this strange-sounding event? What was this "Whirlpool" and to what does this strange
story allude? The shrine says:
His Majesty (here the words are missing) finds on this place called Pi-Kharoti. 14 14
A few lines later it says the king was thrown by a great force. He was thrown by the whirlpool
high into the air. He departed to heaven. He departed this life.
Where is this "Pi- Kharoti"?
The book of Exodus gives us the answer!
EXODUS 14:9 But the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh . . . and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pi-ha-hiroth (Khiroth).
Pi-Kharoti is the Pi-Khiroth of the Hebrew text! This is the very place where Pharaoh and all his
hosts came upon the fleeing Israelites as they were camped. This is the same place where Pharaoh met
his fate in the maelstrom of the Red Sea -- the place of the "Whirlpool." The Egyptian story says he went to "heaven," a euphemism for the fact that he perished and never returned!
The shrine's inscription continues, saying the son of the Pharaoh, "his majesty Geb," set out to
find his missing father. "He asks information." People who witnessed the passage of his father "give him the information about all that happened to Rain Yat Nebes, the combats of the king Thoum." Those with the prince Geb on his journey perish by a terrible blast, and the prince himself sustains terrible burnsbefore he gives up his expedition.
Meanwhile, the shrine continues, invaders approaching by way of Yat Nebes came into Egypt
and overpowered the country, and conquered only to destroy. "These rebels, they came from the
mountains of the Orient by all the ways of Yat Nebes." These invaders, of course, were the Amalekites --
the cruel and barbarous Hyksos.
The prince retreated before the invaders and did not return to Heliopolis. In helplessness, he
retreated to a provincial residence away from the carnage being wreaked in his homeland by the hordes
The inscription at el-Arish says the name of the Pharaoh who perished in the Whirlpool was
Thom or Toum. Pi-Thom means "the abode of Thom." Pithom was one of the names of the two cities
built by the Israelite slaves for the Pharaoh of the Oppression.
The Egyptian historian Manetho calls the name of the Pharaoh who ruled Egypt just before the
invasion of the Hyksos "Tutimaeus or Timaios."
Josephus, the Jewish historian of the first century, quotes Manetho in Against Apion, as follows:
I will quote his (Manetho's) own words, just as if I had produced the man himself in the witness
"Tutimaeus. In his reign, I know not why, a blast of God's displeasure broke upon us.
"A people of ignoble origin from the east, whose coming was unforeseen, had the
audacity to invade the country, which they mastered by main force without any difficulty
or even a battle." 15 15
This "blast of God's displeasure" was the mighty judgments that the Almighty God poured upon
the Egyptians for their cruelty and refusal to allow the children of Israel to leave the country in peace! It
was a divine blast of wind, that caused the towering walls of the Red Sea to crash down upon Pharaoh
and his whole army. As Psalm 136 says, God “swept Pharaoh and his army into the Red Sea” (verse 15, NIV).
Thom, Thoum, or Titimaeus – was the Pharaoh who was known as Amenemhet IV. He was,
therefore, the historical Pharaoh of the Exodus! He was the last Pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom, before
the Hyksos or Amalekites ruled Egypt for 400 years, until the time of king Saul of Israel.
The Jewish historian Josephus also notes that this Pharaoh only had a short reign, before he was
drowned in the Red Sea. In Antiquities of the Jews, he writes:
“[Moses] . . . came to the king, who had indeed but lately received the government,
and told him how much he had done for the good of the Egyptians . . .” (II,13, 2).
Since this Pharaoh had only recently – a few years previously – come to the throne, and died in
the Exodus, it follows that his reign was cut short. This fact itself proves that the usual candidates or listof suspects proposed for the Pharaoh of the Exodus are all wrong. Thutmose II reigned 54 years;
Amenhotep II reigned 5 years; and Ramses II reigned 67 years!
Josephus writes of the ignominious death of this Pharaoh, Amenemhet IV, and his host:
“As soon, therefore, as ever the whole Egyptian army was in it [the Red Sea], the sea flowed to its own place, and came down by a torrent raised by storms of wind, and encompassed the Egyptians. Showers of rain also came down from the sky, and dreadful thunders and lightning, with flashes of fire.
Thunderbolts also were darted upon them; nor was there anything which used to be sent by God upon men as indications of his wrath which did not happen at this time, for a dark and dismal night oppressed them. And thus did all these men perish, so that there was not one man left to be a messenger
of this calamity to the rest of the Egyptians” (Ant. 2, 16, 3).
This awesome deliverance inspired the Hebrews, Josephus relates, as no such overwhelming
deliverance had ever before occurred for any people in all history, to spend the following day and night
singing songs of joy and deliverance, praise and glory to God, rejoicing and laughing and celebrating
with all their hearts.
Following this Exodus, Egypt was left prostrate, virtually defenceless against foreign intruders
and enemies. Soon after this, the Hyksos – Asiatics known as the Amalekites in the Bible, descended
from Esau – invaded Egypt, and ruled the land for about 400 years. They were a fierce and barbarous
people. Moses and Israel encountered them, and fought with them, about a month after they crossed the
Red Sea into Arabia (Exo.17:8-16).
During the centuries of the Hyksos domination of Egypt, there was no literary activity in the land.
During that time, Israel and Palestine were free from Egyptian domination or influence. Therefore,
during the 400 years of the period of the Judges, we find no mention or evidence of any Egyptian
excursions into Palestine. All the battles of Israel were with her Palestinian neighbors and enemies. But
Egypt is strangely silent and absent. But of course! Egypt was having her own problems with the
domination of the Hyksos, or Amalekites! 16 16
The whole picture fits together like a perfect jigsaw puzzle. All the pieces fit beautifully.
But what, then about the famous Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, which threw off the yoke of the
Hyksos? How does Thutmose III and Amenhotep II fit into the picture? When did they live?
The Blossoming of Israel
By the time of king Solomon of Israel, the kingdom of Israel had become a mighty world power.
Solomon reigned over all the land from the Euphrates to the borders of Egypt. He was the lord of a
mighty kingdom with fleets that sailed around the globe with the fleets of Hiram, king of Tyre. During
this time of relative world peace, Egypt also flourished after throwing off the yoke of the Hyksos. Egypt's
greatest dynasty arose -- the Eighteenth, of the New Kingdom.
During the days of Solomon, he had a famous visitor -- the Queen of Sheba. At this time, the
great and celebrated ruler of Egypt and Ethiopia was Hatshepsut, a powerful and wise Queen. Egyptian
records show that during her reign Hatshepsut visited a land well known to the Egyptians, called "Punt,"
where she gave magnificent gifts, and received fabulous gifts in return. Upon her return to Egypt, she
built a magnificent temple, in the Valley of the Nile, against the cliffs -- a temple unlike any previous
Egyptian temple. It was simple in its architecture, and inscribed with paintings of the tremendous
treasure she brought back from "Punt."
During this same time Solomon was receiving tremendous treasures from around the world,
brought to him by the fleets he sent out. Gold from Ophir, apes, peacocks, algum trees, and spices --
there was no end to his wealth and treasure. Who was this "Queen of Sheba" who visited Solomon in his magnificence?
The word "Punt" comes from the name of Pontus, the ancestor of the Phoenicians. Thus "Punt"
was another name for Phoenicia or Palestine! Hatshepsut was none other than the Queen of Sheba (she
ruled Ethiopia and Egypt). The emperors of Ethiopia have always traced their lineage back to Solomon
and the Queen of Sheba -- and they are right!
Josephus clearly identifies the Queen of Sheba with the "woman who at that time ruled as queen
of Egypt and Ethiopia" (Antiquities 8, 6, 5).
Punt was also called "Divine Land," or "God's Land." It was located toward the sunrise. It was a
land affiliated with Egypt, not a foreign country. The inhabitants of this happy land were white men of a
north-Semitic or Caucasian race.
On the walls of her temple in the Valley of the Nile, "The Most Splendid of Splendors," copied
after the Temple in Jerusalem, are bas-reliefs depicting the life and trip of Hatshepsut to "Punt" or "the
Holy Land." A comparison of these bas-reliefs with the beautiful situation of God's Temple in Jerusalem, and the marvels the Queen saw in "Punt," clearly shows Hatshepsut was the Queen who visited Solomon in all his glory, and marveled at his wisdom and prosperity.
You can read the entire comparison in Immanuel Velikovsky's Ages in Chaos, in which he
straightens out much of the historical record of that period. 17 17
Since Hatshepsut corresponds to the time of Solomon, then her son, Thutmose III, the "Napoleon
of ancient Egypt," would correspond to a mighty Egyptian ruler who ruled contemporary with Solomon's son, Rehoboam.
Does this identification fit?
Thutmose was a mighty conqueror. The records of his military successes adorn the walls of the
great Amon Temple in Karnak. A list of 119 cities in Palestine is engraved three times on the walls of theTemple. Since Thutmose's victorious march through Palestine occurred after the reign of his mother,
Hatshepsut, who reigned contemporary with Solomon, Thutmose reigned contemporary with Rehoboam,Solomon' son. Surely the chronicles of ancient Judah and Israel could not have overlooked this victoriousEgyptian campaign!
Indeed, they do not.
Thutmose III led his army into Palestine, and defeated the enemy arraigned against him at
Megiddo. After Megiddo fell, the king conquered 118 other cities. The most important, and first on his
list, was a city called simply "Kadesh." Where was this city? Who was its king?
Investigators have been puzzled why so many cities were listed in Palestine, yet the name of
Jerusalem was not mentioned in the text. But this Kadesh could not be the Kadesh on the Orontes in
northern Syria. The list of cities is of Palestinian cities, not Syrian cities. Secondly, Kadesh is listed first,even before Megiddo, where the king fought his greatest battle. Obviously, Kadesh was considered evenmore important!
The word "kadesh" in Hebrew means "holy." This was a "holy city." Is Jerusalem ever called "the
In many places in the Scriptures, Jerusalem is referred to as “my mount kadesh,” “my mountain
kadesh,” “thy city kadesh” (Psalm 2:6, Joel 2:1, Isa. 66:20). Daniel refers to Jerusalem as “thy city
kadesh” (Dan. 9:24). The “Holy Land” and “Holy City” were names given to Palestine and Jerusalem
from early times. Therefore, it is no strange thing for the Pharaoh Thutmose III to refer to Jerusalem by
this common name used for it at that time! Kadesh, “Holy,” referred directly to Jerusalem, regarded as
the “Holy City.”
During this time, when the Temple of Solomon stood, it was especially so regarded by the
envious peoples of the surrounding nations!
Do the Scriptures also speak of this time of invasion and humiliation for the Jews and Rehoboam,
when Jerusalem was attacked and conquered?
We read, "And it came to pass, in the fifth year of king Rehoboam. Shishak king of Egypt came
up against Jerusalem . . . . With twelve hundred chariots, and threescore thousand horsemen: and the
people were without number that came with him out of Egypt; the Lubim (Libyans), the Sukkiim, and the
Ethiopians. And he took the fenced cities which pertained to Judah, and came to Jerusalem" (II Chron.
Jerusalem opened its gates to Thutmose III without offering any further resistance. Thutmose, or 18 18
Shishak) "took away the treasures of the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the king's house; he took
all; he carried away also the shields of gold which Solomon had made" (II Chron. 12:9).
These treasures are reproduced upon a wall of the Karnak temple. The bas-reliefs display in ten
rows the legendary wealth of Solomon, including vessels and utensils of the Temple, of the palace, the
golden altar, the brazen altar, the shewbread (gold and silver), and the candlesticks. If all Thutmose III's booty had been painted on the Temple wall, it would have been a mile long! But instead numerical signs were marked beneath each picture to illustrate the quantity!
If Thutmose III lived 600 years before Solomon, how could he have possibly captured such a
treasure trove which didn't yet even exist?
The Temple pillaged by this king was an extremely rich and significant Temple, with tremendous
wealth. It could be none other than the Temple pillaged by Shishak, in the time of Rehoboam, son of
Solomon! No wonder Thutmose III was looked upon as such a mighty conqueror!
Now what about the son of Thutmose III, Amenhotep II? Can we identify him in the Scriptures?
Amenhotep II marched against Palestine and Syria after the death of his father, to suppress
rebellion. In the ninth year of his reign, he repeated his expedition, this time going against some
unimportant villages. On his next visit he did battle only one day after leaving the border of Egypt, and
then retreated. This battle had to have been in southern Palestine.
How victorious was Amenhotep II at this battle? His booty consisted of the following: 2 horses, 1
chariot, a coat of mail, 2 bows, and one quiver of arrows, a corselet, and one other object which cannot
be deciphered! Truly this was an amazing victory! Afterwards, instead of marching forward into enemy
territory to capture more booty, the king retreated into Egypt! Is this battle also mentioned in the Bible?
Zerah the Ethiopian
The grandson of Rehoboam was Asa, who built fortified cities throughout Judah. Asa had an
army of 580,000 men from Judah and Benjamin (II Chron. 14:8).
During his reign, "there came out against them Zerah the Ethiopian with a host of 1,000,000, and
300 chariots; and came unto Mareshah" (II Chron. 14:9-10).
During this battle, Asa prayed for God's divine help, and he received it. "So the Lord smote the
Ethiopians before Asa, and before Judah; and the Ethiopians fled" (v.12). Asa achieved a magnificent
victory, and the Egyptians and Ethiopians fled the scene of battle! Amenhotep II was none other than
Zerah the Ethiopian. Moreshah, where this battle took place, is in southern Palestine, where Amenhotep
conquered "horses 2, chariots 1," etc.!
Clearly, as we have seen, the Exodus of Israel did not occur during the 18th Dynasty in Egypt at
all! It occurred at the end of the Middle Kingdom, at the end of the 12th Dynasty, during the reign of
Amenemhet IV, the last Pharaoh of the glorious Middle Kingdom. Egyptian history, rightly interpreted,
corroborates the Biblical record!